Menaquinone-7 Supplementation to Reduce Vascular Calcification in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease: Rationale and Study Protocol (VitaK-CAC Trial)

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4663571/?fbclid=IwAR2LSa5CF...

In conclusion, the VitaK-CAC trial will study the effect of menaquinone-7 supplementation on progression of CAC in a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. We hypothesize that MK-7 supplementation will slow down the progression of CAC in patients with CAD. So far, no treatment options are available for vascular calcification, and this trial may lead to a treatment option for vascular calcification and cardiovascular disease.

The result of this study will be expected at the end of 2017.

No results published yet

https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/results/NCT01002157?view=results

Association of the Inactive Circulating Matrix Gla Protein with Vitamin K Intake, Calcification, Mortality, and Cardiovascular Disease: A Review

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6387246/

Supplementation of vitamin K2 (especially MK-7) seems to upregulate MGP activation and decrease the circulating inactive forms of MGP. Therefore, K2 intake might be beneficial and protect against future CV events in both healthy populations and patients that carry a heavy CV burden.

Re-evaluation of the traditional diet-heart hypothesis: analysis of recovered data from Minnesota Coronary Experiment (1968-73)

https://www.bmj.com/content/353/bmj.i1246

Conclusions Available evidence from randomized controlled trials shows that replacement of saturated fat in the diet with linoleic acid effectively lowers serum cholesterol but does not support the hypothesis that this translates to a lower risk of death from coronary heart disease or all causes. Findings from the Minnesota Coronary Experiment add to growing evidence that incomplete publication has contributed to overestimation of the benefits of replacing saturated fat with vegetable oils rich in linoleic acid.

The effect of statins on average survival in randomised trials, an analysis of end point postponement

https://bmjopen.bmj.com/content/5/9/e007118#block-system-main

Objective To estimate the average postponement of death in statin trials.

Setting A systematic literature review of all statin trials that presented all-cause survival curves for treated and untreated.

Intervention Statin treatment compared to placebo.

Primary outcome measures The average postponement of death as represented by the area between the survival curves.

Results 6 studies for primary prevention and 5 for secondary prevention with a follow-up between 2.0 and 6.1 years were identified. Death was postponed between −5 and 19 days in primary prevention trials and between −10 and 27 days in secondary prevention trials. The median postponement of death for primary and secondary prevention trials were 3.2 and 4.1 days, respectively.

Conclusions Statin treatment results in a surprisingly small average gain in overall survival within the trials’ running time. For patients whose life expectancy is limited or who have adverse effects of treatment, withholding statin therapy should be considered.

Statin Intolerance: Not a Myth

https://www.acc.org/latest-in-cardiology/articles/2015/08/11/09/16/stati...

Organ/Systems

Potential Side Effects of Statins

Respiratory

↑ risk of interstitial lung disease (0.01-0.4%),

↑ risk of upper respiratory tract infection (1-16%), ↑ risk of pharyngitis (3-13%), rhinitis (1-11%), sinusitis (2-7%), bronchitis (2%), cough (1-2%)

Neurologic and Psychological Effects

↑ risk of suicide, aggressive behavior, ↑ headache (2-17%), asthenia (1-4%), dizziness (1-4%), fatigue (1-4%),

↑ risk of depressive disorder in stroke patients,

↑ risk of hemorrhagic stroke, severe irritability, insomnia, somnolence, agitation, confusion, hallucinations, and nightmares

Endocrine

↑ risk of new onset diabetes (NOD) (9-27%),

Intensive-dose statin therapy is associated with a 12% higher incidence of NOD compared with moderate-dose statin therapy

Gastrointestinal Tract

↑ constipation, diarrhea, dyspepsia, flatulence heartburn, nausea vomiting

Hepatic

< 1.5% hepatotoxicity in coronary artery disease patients in 5 years, ↑ liver enzyme activity

Skin

↑ risk of alopecia, lichenoid eruption, dermographism, chronic urticaria, toxic epidermal necrolysis and rash (1-4%)

Eye

↑ risk of cataract (up to 27%), ↑ diplopia, ptosis and ophthalmoplegia

Renal

↑ risk of acute renal failure, ↑ proteinuria

Reproductive

erectile dysfunction, decrease libido, gynecomastia ,  

 testosterone levels (7.5-10.3%) after 48 weeks of statins

Blood

↑ risk of thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TPP)

Bones and Joints

tendinitis, arthralgia, arthritis, lupus, polymyalgia rheumatica

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